1991: Death of the writer Natalia Ginzburg (b. 1916).
1354: Assassination of Cola di Rienzo (b. 1313), self-styled 'tribune of the Roman people'.
1551: Birth of the composer Giulio Caccini (d. 1618).
1962: Opening of the Second Vatican Council in St Peter's Basilica.
54 CE: Death of Emperor Claudius (r. 41-54), possibly as a result of poisoning.
1534: Election of Pope Paul III (r. 1534-49).
2018: Canonisation of Pope Paul VI (r. 1963-78) by Pope Francis (r. 2013-) in St Peter's Square.
1591: Death of Pope Gregory XIV (r. 1590-91).
1608: Birth of the scientist Evangelista Torricelli (d. 1647), inventor of the barometer.
1943: 1,023 Jews were detained by the Gestapo and sent, the next day, to Auschwitz. Only 16 returned.
1978: Election of John Paul II (r. 1978-2005), the first non-Italian pope in 455 years.
1503: Death of Pope Pius III, who only reigned for 26 days.
312: Emperor Constantine I defeated his rival and co-emperor Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, a victory that would change the course of history.
1922: March on Rome.
1958: Election of Pope John XIII (r. 1958-63).
1993: Death of the film director Federico Fellini (b. 1920), who lived for years onVia Margutta.