October 6th 1689: Election of Pope Alexander VIII (r. 1689-91).
October 7th 1991: Death of the writer Natalia Ginzburg (b. 1916).
October 8th 1354: Assassination of Cola di Rienzo (b. 1313), self-styled 'tribune of the Roman people'. 1551: Birth of the composer Giulio Caccini (d. 1618).
October 9th 1695: Death of the architect Giovanni Antonio de’ Rossi (b. 1616). 1958: Death of Pope Pius XII (r. 1939-58). October 11th 1303: Death of Pope Boniface VIII (r. 1294-1303), who held in 1300, the first Jubilee or Holy Year. 1962: Opening of the Second Vatican Council in St Peter's Basilica. October 13th 54 CE: Death of Emperor Claudius (r. 41-54). 1534: Election of Pope Paul III (r. 1534-49).
October 14th 2018: Canonisation of Pope Paul VI (r. 1963-78) by Pope Francis (r. 2013-) in St Peter's Square.
October 15th 1591: Death of Pope Gregory XIV (r. 1590-91). 1608: Birth of the scientist Evangelista Torricelli (d. 1647), inventor of the barometer.
October 16th 1943: 1,023 Jews were rounded up by the Gestapo and sent, the next day, to Auschwitz. Only 16 returned. 1978: Election of John Paul II (r. 1978-2005), the first non-Italian pope in 455 years.
October 18th 1503: Death of Pope Pius III, who reigned for just 26 days.
October 22nd 1849: Birth of the sculptor Giulio Tadolini (d. 1918). Both his father Scipione Tadolini and his grandfather Adamo Tadolini were sculptors. October 28th 312: Emperor Constantine I defeated his rival and co-emperor Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, a victory that would change the course of history. 1922: March on Rome. 1958: Election of Pope John XIII (r. 1958-63).
October 29th 1591: Election of Pope Innocent IX, who only reigned for 62 days.
October 31st 1503: Election of Pope Julius II (r. 1503-13). 1993: Death of the film director Federico Fellini (b. 1920), who lived for years on Via Margutta.