1643: Death of the composer Girolamo Frescobaldi (b. 1583), who is buried in the church of Santi Apostoli.
1939: Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli became the last Roman to be elected pope, taking the name Pius XII (r. 1939-58).
1431: Election of Pope Eugenius IV (r. 1431-47).
1447: Election of Pope Nicholas V (r. 1447-55).
1725: Birth of Henry Benedict Stuart, Cardinal Duke of York, the last legitimate descendant of the deposed King James II of Great Britain.
1622: Pope Gregory XV (r. 1621-23) created four saints: St Ignatius Loyola, St Teresa d'Avila, St Francis Xavier and St Philip Neri.
2013: Election of Pope Francis, the first Jesuit, and the first South American, to become pontiff.
44 BCE: Assassination of Julius Caesar on the Ides of March. The assassination took place in the Curia Pompeia, part of the Theatre of Pompey.
1978: The former prime minister Aldo Moro was kidnapped by the Brigate Rosse (Red Brigades).
1976: Death of the film director Luchino Visconti (b. 1906).
37 CE: Senate recognised Caligula (r. 37-41) as emperor following the death of Tiberius (r. 14-37).
1721: Death of Pope Clement XI (r. 1700-21).
1455: Death of Pope Nicholas V (r. 1447-55).
1378: Death of Gregory XI (r. 1370 -78), the French pope who returned the papacy from Avignon to Rome.
1944: 335 Italians were executed by the Nazis in revenge for the deaths of 33 German soldiers, who were killed, the previous day, by a group of partisans.
1957: The Treaty of Rome was signed, creating the European Economic Community.