1598: Death of the Neapolitan painter Scipione Pulzone, also known as il Gaetano.
1839: Death of the Roman architect Giuseppe Valadier (b. 1762), who redesigned Piazza del Popolo.
1594: Death of the composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina.
1831: Election of Pope Gregory XVI (r. 1831-46).
1498: Death of the Florentine painter and sculptor Antonio del Pollaiuolo, who is buried in the church of San Pietro in Vincoli.
1787: Death of the painter Pompeo Batoni (b. 1708).
1577: Birth of Beatrice Cenci (d. 1599), who was executed for the crime of parricide.
1652: Death of the composer Gregorio Allegri (b. 1582).
1878: Death of Pius IX, the longest reigning pope in history. Pius IX (r. 1846-78) is buried in the church of San Lorenzo fuori le Mura.
1751: Death of Nicola Salvi (b. 1697), the Roman architect who designed the Trevi Fountain.
1621: Gregory XV (r. 1621-23) became the last pope to be elected by acclamation.
1929: The Lateran Treaty was signed, thus creating Vatican City State.
44 BCE: Julius Caesar appointed perpetual dictator (dictator in perpetuum).
1775: Election of Pope Pius VI (r. 1775-79).
1600: Death of the Dominican friar and philosopher Giordano Bruno. Bruno was convicted of heresy and burnt at the stake in Campo de' Fiori.
1564: Death of Michelangelo (b. 1475).
1431: Death of Pope Martin V (r. 1417-31), who is buried in San Giovanni in Laterano.
1816: Premiere of Rossini's opera The Barber of Seville at the Teatro Argentina.
1513: Death of Julius II (r. 1503-13), the pope who commissioned Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
1447: Death of Pope Eugenius IV (r. 1431-47).
1821: Death of the poet John Keats (b. 1795), who is buried in Rome's 'English' Cemetery.
2013: Resignation of Pope Benedict XVI (r. 2005-13).