August 4th 1903: Election of Pope Pius X (r. 1903-14).
August 6th 1458: Death of Pope Callixtus II (r. 1455-58). 1623: Election of Pope Urban VIII (r. 1623-44). 1697: Birth of the architect Nicola Salvi (d. 1751), most famous for his design of the Trevi Fountain. 1978: Death of Pope Paul VI (r. 1963-78).
August 11th 1492: Election of Cardinal Rodrigo de Borja as Pope Alexander VI (r. 1492-1503). 1614: Death of the painter Lavinia Fontana (b. 1552), who is buried in the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. 1689: Death of Pope Innocent XI (r. 1676-89).
August 12th 1484: Death of Pope Sixtus IV (r. 1471-84), who built the Sistine Chapel. 1614: Death of Giovanni Fontana (b. 1540), the architect and engineer who designed the Fontana dell’ Acqua Paola. Giovanni was the older brother of Domenico Fontana (1543-1607), who was a much more famous architect. August 15th 1483: Consecration of the Cappella Sistina by Pope Sixtus IV (r. 1471-84).
August 17th 1740: Election of Pope Benedict XIV (r. 1740-58).
August 18th 1503: Death of Pope Alexander VI (r. 1492-1503), who was a member of the infamous Borgia family. 1559: Death of Pope Paul IV (r. 1555-59), who created the Jewish Ghetto in Rome. Paul IV is buried in the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva.
August 19th 1458: Election of Pope Pius II (r. 1458-64). 1929: Death of the Roman sculptor Ettore Ferrari (b. 1845).
August 20th 1561: Birth of the composer Jacopo Peri (d. 1633), who is often called the inventor of opera. 1823: Death of Pope Pius VII (r. 1800-23). 1914: Death of Pope Pius X (r. 1903-14).
August 24th 410: Sack of Rome by the Visigoths, led by their king Alaric.
August 25th 1960: Opening of the Summer Olympics with Rome as the host city.
August 26th 1498: Michelangelo was commissioned by Cardinal Jean de Bilhères-Lagraulas, the French ambassador to the Holy See, to carve a statue of the Virgin Mary and Christ, known as La Pietà. 1978: Election of Pope John Paul I, who reigned for just 33 days. August 27th 1590: Death of Pope Sixtus V (r. 1585-90), who is interred in the Cappella Sistina, in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore.
August 29th 1484: Election of Pope Innocent VIII (r. 1484-92). 1629: Death of the sculptor Pietro Bernini (b. 1562), father of Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680).
August 30th 1464: Election of Pope Paul II (r. 1464-71), the nephew of Pope Eugenius IV (r. 1431-47).