The round Temple of Hercules Victor (formerly known as the Temple of Vesta), which stands in what was once the Forum Boarium (cattle market), dates back to the late 2nd century or early 1st century BCE.
It is uncertain to which deity the temple was dedicated, although Hercules, demi-god of victory and commercial activity, is a likely candidate.
The temple owes its survival to the fact that it was converted into a church. It was known as Santo Stefano alle Carozze (St. Stephen 'at the carriages'), but was later renamed Santa Maria del Sole. The church was deconsecrated at the beginning of the 19th century.