The Porticus Octaviae (Porticus of Octavia) was originally built by Quintus Caecilius Metellus with the proceeds of his victory in Macedonia in 146 BCE. It enclosed two victory-temples, which were dedicated to Juno Regina and Jupiter Stator. The porticus was rebuilt by the emperor Augustus (r. 27 BCE - 14 CE) in about 25 BCE and dedicated to his sister Octavia. It incorporated a library in memory of Marcellus, Octavia's son, who died in 23 BCE.
The porticus was later restored by the emperor Septimius Severus (r. 193-211) following the outbreak of a fire, as detailed in the inscription: INCENDIO CORRVPTAM REST.