The delightful Oratorio del Gonfalone was built in the middle of the 16th century as the headquarters of the Arciconfraternità del Gonfalone. Gonfalone (banner) refers to the banners or flags, which the members of the arch-confraternity carried in religious processions and celebrations.
The simple rectangular hall of the oratory is decorated with a series of frescoes, which illustrate scenes from the Passion of Christ.
The cycle of frescoes, the work of a number of artists, was painted between 1569 and 1576, when Cardinal Alessandro Farnese was the oratory's patron. It is probable that the project was entrusted to Jacopo Bertoja, a painter from Parma, who arrived in Rome in 1568. His team of artists included Lucio Agresti, Raffaellino da Reggio, Federico Zuccari, Cesare Nebbia, Marcantonio dal Forno and Marco Pino.
The cardinal's coat of arms is located on the wooden ceiling, which was carved by Ambrogio Bonazzini.
The Oratorio del Gonfalone is now used as a venue for concerts given by the Coro Polifonico Romano.